Monday, January 11, 2010

Chemical bonding

Types of bonding

Ionic bond (between ions)
Ionic bond is the electrostatic force of attraction between the positive and negative ions as a result of transfer of electrons from an atom to another. (eg NaCl, MgCO3 )

Covalent bond (between atoms)
Covalent bond is the electrostatic force of attraction resulted by sharing of two electrons by two atoms.
Covalent bond can be found in simple molecular structure ( discrete molecules eg O2, CO2 ) and giant covalent structure (with a network of covalent bonds eg C(graphite), C(diamond), SiO2,,Si ]

Metallic bond ( between positive ions surrounded by sea of delocalised electrons)
Metallic bond is the electrostatic attractions between the cations and the delocalised electrons surrounding the cations. (eg Mg, Al , Na, Ag, Pb, Sn)

3 types of intermolecular forces ( weak forces between molecules)

London or dispersion forces occurs are weak forces occur between non- polar molecules , eg: CH4, Cl2, CO2

Dipole-dipole forces are forces occur between polar molecules, eg HCl , H2S, SO2

Hydrogen bonding is the electrostatic attraction forces between H atom bonded to a very electronegative atom and the lone pair of electrons from a very electronegative atom such as. F,O or N atom (eg HF, NH3, H2O ,amines and alcohols) Hydrogen bonding causes higher boiling points of hydrides, solubility of carboxylic acids, alcohols and amines, dimerisation of carboxylic acids and low density of ice.

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